The storied and complex history of the Mongolian capital city, Ulaanbaatar, dates back to its founding in 1639. The first capital of the country was called Urgoo, was initially located at the temple complex Da Khuree some 420 kilometres from present-day Ulaanbaatar and was built to house the new religious leader of the Mongolian people. From 1639 to 1778, Urgoo was relocated roughly 25 times, following the nomadic traditions of the people, often between locations on the Selenge, Orkhon and Tuul rivers. During this period of expansion and develop-ment the capital moved from place to place until finally settling on its present location in the Selbe river valley in 1778. This marked the begin-ning of a period of urbanization, and by 1855 the residents of the city now known as Ikh Khuree had built many temples, monasteries and other es-sential buildings, combining the Mongolian ger-style of architecture with those of contemporary Chinese and Tibetan design. In 1924 Ikh Khuree was renamed Ulaanbaatar, and legally declared the capital of the newly formed Mongolian People’s Republic.
Ulaanbaatar today is a vibrant city of more than one million residents. The city reflects a close and sometimes amusing juxtaposition of nomadic traditions and modern society, perhaps best summarized by its skyline dotted with both gers (felt tents) and towering skyscrapers. The city’s contrast can also be found among those who call it home, from traditional-clad herders, to Armani-suited business men and women, to a growing number of ex-patriots hailing from nearly every corner of the globe. In short, there is something for everyone, and always a sight to behold in Ulaanbaatar.
1.3 million/As of 2014/
46%of total population of Mongolia
470,000 hectares of area
Continental,with little precipitation and sharp seasonal fluctuations
20C in summer and
-24C in winter
9 districts and
246 persons per
Tugrug (1 USD = 1990 tugrug approximately by May 2016)
Time:Three time zones
GMT +6, +7, +8
Ulaanbaatar has developed into a world class city within 100 years. The Mongolia’s capital city is turned into a mega-policy city with ranking the 452nd in the world among cities having population over 1 million and the 107th amongst capital cities having over 1 million population. Children and young people occupy about 71 percent of Ulaanbaatar’s population and the city centralizes multi kind of services and culture. Moreover, Ulaanbaatar is a hub of western, eastern and nomadic civilization and people can see historical memories and heritiages of different civilization backgrounds.
HOW TO GO TO ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA
Chingis Khaan International Airport, located 18 km to the southwest of Ulaanbaatar has regularly scheduled flights on MIAT (Mongolian Airlines), Air China, Korean Air, Turkish Air and Aeroflot (Russian Airline).
Here are list of airlines that serve Mongolia with direct flights from Germany, Russia, Turkey, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and China, connecting to everywhere in the world.
Moscow, Russia:MIAT (Mongolian Airlines), AEROFLOT (Russian Airlines) - All year
Beijing, China: MIAT (Mongolian Airlines), Air China - All year
Seoul, South Korea: MIAT (Mongolian Airlines), Korean Air - All year
Tokyo, Japan Berlin, Germany; Hong Kong, China: MIAT (Mongolian Airlines) - All year
Osaka, Japan; Frankfurt, Germany: MIAT (Mongolian Airlines) - Seasonal, in the summer
Istanbul, Turkey with stopover in Bishkek: Turkish Airline - All year
The legendary Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest continuous rail line in the World. The total distance by rail from Beijing to St. Petersburg, Russia is 7,925 kilometers. The Trans Mongolian runs from Russian border via Ulaanbaatar to the Chinese border. A total of 1,110 kilometers of "Trans-Mongolian Main Line" is operated inside Mongolia.
Exploring Mongolia following the rail lines of the legendary Trans-Siberian Railways is more than a simple way of transportation, it is an expedition in itself. The famous railway route is Moscow – Ulaanbaatar – Beijing. The journey by train from Moscow to Ulaanbaatar takes 5 days and from Beijing to Ulaanbaatar takes 36 hours. There are usually nine compartments in each carriage with four berths in each. Twin-share compartments are available for a supplementary price.